Laser welding process in the automotive industry, aluminum and magnesium alloy materials, welding, plastic processing industry, shipbuilding and other fields have a very important position, is a highly integrated technology, can significantly enhance industrial efficiency and products, service quality. In this context, the study of laser welding process analysis and progress of the many problems, has important practical significance.
1.Overview of laser welding process
The laser welding process is a modern welding method. Compared with the traditional welding methods, laser welding has many features, such as welding the workpiece deformation is small, the welding depth and width are higher, less heat affected area. In addition, the laser welding process will not be affected by the magnetic field, not completely confined to the conductive material and vacuum working environment, but also in the course of the work will not produce a large number of X-ray. It is precisely because of the above advantages, laser welding process in various fields of industrial applications is more extensive. In recent years, the manufacturing sector has gradually applied automation technology to the entire process of welding, only the integration of laser and computer control, to achieve a combination of organic, in order to achieve better welding process, more precise control, to achieve product quality improvement The The improvement of the quality of welding products requires the improvement of laser welding process monitoring and quality control, which has become one of the key schedules in the field of laser utilization. Among them, the use of various types of sensors such as inductors, sound waves, capacitors, The core content. In addition, the use of electronic computer to carry out the work, according to the welding object and the requirements of the different weld tracking, defect detection and other projects, the use of feedback control to achieve the adjustment of welding process parameters, and ultimately to complete the laser welding automation.
2.Application status of laser welding technology
Compared with the traditional welding process, laser welding process can effectively achieve a variety of materials, "seamless" welding, as the traditional welding process to add and expand. From China's current welding practice point of view, laser welding process has become the mainstay of this area.
2.1.Laser welding process in the field of electronic components
In the traditional welding process, the welding surface will be too high temperature and radiation, this situation will damage the electronic components themselves, resulting in electronic components broken or poor contact, affecting the surrounding environment. Although these adverse effects can be resolved through the relevant means, but this will undoubtedly have a shortened impact on the life of electronic components, and even affect the follow-up of normal work. From China's current welding practice, laser welding has been widely used in the field of electronic components welding. Because the laser welding process has the ability to carry out local fine heating within the scope of the fine, but also to be able to accurately control the electronic parts of the local parts of the welding temperature. It is popular to say that the laser welding process can achieve a higher average temperature in the micro-area, and will not have an adverse effect on the surrounding area.
2.2.Application of laser welding technology in aluminum alloy welding
Laser welding process in the automotive industry, the use of aluminum alloy welding is also more extensive. In the process of welding the car-related devices, the side of the way to protect the gas is the most commonly used a welding method, to achieve all-round protection of automotive galvanized sheet. From the current development of China's automobile manufacturing practice, aluminum alloy is a more common industrial materials, can play the role of car body corrosion and reduce the weight of vehicles. Therefore, in the engine, wheels, dashboard and many other aspects, aluminum alloy materials have a very wide range of use. Laser welding process in the aluminum alloy welding has a unique advantage, because it can achieve the efficient protection of aluminum alloy materials. However, in the aluminum alloy welding practice using laser welding process also has some drawbacks, which is determined by the thermal performance of aluminum alloy itself. Although this feature can achieve the effective protection of aluminum alloy components, but it can not effectively avoid the pool splash, hole collapse and other welding process often occurs.
2.3.Laser welding process in the application of magnesium alloy welding
Automobile manufacturing industry in recent years has been leaps and bounds, the production of automotive parts gradually from the aluminum alloy transition to magnesium alloy. Compared with aluminum alloy parts, magnesium alloy has the characteristics of light weight, and rigidity, strength, conductivity, thermal conductivity and other properties have a certain upgrade and optimization. In addition, the magnesium alloy can achieve recycling, recycling the effect is better, lower economic costs. Laser welding process in the welding process of magnesium alloy material in the device can produce a local oxide film, magnesium alloy device to achieve efficient protection. Not only in the field of automobile manufacturing, the extensive use of magnesium alloy in the aerospace field also makes the laser welding process a mainstream welding technology because it can meet the complex requirements of the production and manufacture of machinery and equipment for aerospace use and can effectively reduce the aircraft's own weight.
3.The research progress of laser welding technology
Whether from domestic or foreign laser welding practice, the future of laser welding technology research focused on the following three aspects: First, the effective control of the welding process. Second, the development and upgrading of lasers. Finally, it is the dynamic monitoring of weld defects. In the second aspect, the promotion of electro-optical conversion efficiency is the core of laser research and development and upgrading, because China's current laser structure is still complex, how to achieve the internal structure of the laser and external performance improvement and upgrading is one of the important tasks of the moment.In the third aspect, because a single sensor technology can not meet the requirements of many complex inspection tasks, so in the future, they need to further develop the welding process monitoring technology, trying to combine the various forms of sensor technology fully improve the accuracy of the detection task.
In the development process of laser welding process, double-beam laser welding technology, laser composite welding technology and three-dimensional controllable laser head are all on the laser welding process mature and development has played a very strong role in promoting. The advantages of the laser welding process make it one of the most energetic welding methods. In the future, the use of materials in the welding of the main focus on the development of new lasers, high-precision laser welding equipment development and put into use, different materials to the process of improvement and optimization. With the laser welding process continues to develop mature, its application areas will become more and more broad. In some areas, laser welding process to replace the traditional welding process, as the mainstream of welding technology, has been just around the corner.
The deep development of laser welding technology can promote the development of domestic welding technology is mature. From China's current material welding practice point of view, the laser welding process is mainly in mass production, contractor large-scale welding enterprises and aerospace and other projects supported by the state financial use, and did not get a real sense of a wide range and wide areas universal. Related areas of work and researchers to focus on the laser welding process optimization and improvement work, to give full play to its advantages, to overcome the defects, for the product quality and production efficiency to make greater contributions.